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Towards the end of the 15. century, the Hungarian Franciscan order underwent a reneissance of observantism. Pelbartus de Themeswar in his Pomerium de sanctis sermon collection devotes no less than six sermons to their founder. The author of the essay explores the ways in which Pelbartus uses his sources in the face of the international Franciscan tradition. He argues that Pelbartus focuses on the Saint Franciscus as present in Bonaventura’s Legenda maior, Doomsday predicator who is attested by his bodily stigmata. Pelbartus, however, also includes interesting material for the reader, relying on Bartholomaeus de Pisa. Thus, it can be concluded that Pelbartus puts less emphasis on the sanctity of Saint Franciscus’s poverty, apostolic life, and miracles.
Hagiography, liturgy and knowledge from different fields of sciences are the main components of the structure of Pelbartus de Themeswar’s sermons. The hagiographical research in the speeches we have chosen is based on the reinterpretation of the expression praecursor, the enumeration of the parts of the body of Saint Francis, and the role of Saint Cunegunde of Hungary in the tradition and Pelbartus de Themeswar’s sermons. From the point of view of the history of science our aim is to demonstrate the appearance of the knowledge of the seven liberal arts and mechanical arts in the examined speeches. According to our assumption, the parts of speeches that make the severe doctrine more lively and interesting play a major role in late medieval sermon literature. Their functions might be teaching, illustration and explanation of abstract theological concepts.
In the process of tracing back the quotations by Pelbartus de Themeswar made in hiscollection of sermons complete with references, the question arises to the authors of a critical edition: how can texts mediated by CD-ROM or the Internet today be used as alternative sources to printed material and manuscripts? The author explores the searching possibilities as well as the authenticity of the texts available in CD-ROM and on-line.
Amongst the Latin source texts identifiable as patterns relied on by the Carthusian Anonym when constructing his Hungarian sermons, yet another collection of sermons has been identified by the author of the essay. Namely, a collection entitled Sermones de laudibus sanctorum authored by Robertus Caracciolus, a Franciscan friar living in Italy in the 15. century. This is a truly novel finding in the research conducted on the legend of Saint Catherine of Siena. Structure and word level equivalence shows that the Carthusian Anonym no doubt had this precise collection at hand. This knowledge provides us with a further research source, which will probably be useful in locating other source texts for the Érdy Codex sermon collection.
Our earlier research results provide the basis for assessing deviation phenomena of this Hungarian text from its Latin source.
Lexical search possibilities in the on-line critical edition of the Érdy Codex
The Érdy Codex (1526-27) is the biggest Hungarian manuscript collection of sermons and legends. Its on-line critical edition opens up vast lexical search possibilities. The author of the essay has been working on the literal transcription of the text. The lexical search programme has to be fed a list of dictionary entries extracted by hand from the literal transcription; in the process, facts of historical linguistics have to be regarded. But only to a certain extent; the main goal is to show keywords, possibly in their modern form, for researchers to be able to find. Each entry in the dictionary contains a list of all the spelling variants as well as all the inflected forms of the head lexical element occurring in the manuscript. Furthermore, the search programme lists the concrete data in four lines of context. The spelling variants themselves are valid search elements. In the future, a Latin-Hungarian lexical concordance dictionary may be aligned to this existing one.
The translations of Saint Alexius’s legend in medieval Hungarian codex literature
The legend of Saint Alexius as it is present in the Legenda aurea has six surviving late medieval Hungarian text variants. This provides excellent material for making observations about medieval translation techniques, and thus trace possible connections among the Hungarian manuscripts themselves (i.e. identity of the scribes). The close readig of the variants is summed up by the author in two tables: one showing sentence-level similarities and differences between the texts, and a word-level Latin-Hungarian dictionary based on the linguistic material, showing the lexical choices of the translators/scribes. As a research result, observations characterise each translator in the face of his applied techniques.
There is an exemplum in the Érdy Codex recounted by the Carthusian Anonym on the festive day of the Annunciation. He quotes Saint Anselm as the source of the exemplum, in which the main character – a person who re-read Ave Maria daily – was robbed and murdered, and buried into the earth with only his staff marking his grave. The wayfarer’s staff conceived and grew into a nice big lovage tree, each of its leaves reading ’Ave Maria’.
The author of the essay presents the findings on her research on the parallel motives in the medieval context of the connotations of the word lovage tree. Furthermore, she recounts the ways in which the more general tree symbol refers either to the Virgin Mary or the person reciting or reading Ave Maria.
Native language, usage of texts, and devotional routine in two variants of Salve mundi salutare surviving in late medieval Hungarian literature
The author of the essay examines two late medieval Hungarian translations of the prayer Salve mundi salutare, which has been ascribed to Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, in the face of the devotional routine reflected by books of hours. Comparing the two texts results in the tracing of a common Hungarian source text on which both rely. The author argues that different manifestations of the same source text in various copies may be due to the differenct aims pursued by the scribes: one (the scribe of the Czech Codex) intends to achieve metrical harmony, while the other (the scribe of the Tewrewk Codex) intends to facilitate the reader’s reliving the Passion of the Christ.